Research Interests
 
Research area: PoliticalPsychology/Behavior
専門分野            : 政治心理学/行動
 
Current Research Project
  My current research projects focus on two topics:
      (1) The relationship between politicians (or candidates for political office) and their audiences.
      (2) The communicative patterns and responsiveness of national (and local) level politicians in Japan throughout broadcast talk shows. That is, on how Japanese politicians cope with the questions posed to them during televised political interviews. This study utilizes the framework of the “Equivocation Theory” to analyze televised interviews with high echelon members of the Japanese National Parliament (Diet) as well as local level political leaders, to explore their communicative patterns and responsiveness throughout broadcast talk shows and to compare them with those of non-politicians. It focuses specifically on the question of whether and to what extent Japanese politicians equivocate during televised programs, thereby evaluating the significance of these talk shows in the broader context of political communication in Japan.
 
Current Working Project Titles:
  1. Symbolic Politics: How Japanese Politicians Elicit Behavior of their Audiences through Communication
          (or: The Role of Political Talks, Jokes, and Handshakes in Gaining and Maintaining Political Positions
  2. How and Why Wishy-Washy Politicians Equivocate on Japanese Political Interviews
         (or, How Political Issues Affect Equivocation in Japanese Political Interviews)
研究課題:
  1. シンボリックポリティクス:日本の政治家はコミュニケーションを通していかに聴衆を誘導するか
    • (あるいは、政治的地位を獲得/維持する際における政治言語、ジョーク、握手の役割)
  2. 日本のテレビ討論番組の特徴と性質に関する研究:政治的レトリックと行動への考察
 
Current Research Key Words:     Political Behavior, Political Language, Communication, Rhetoric, Discourse Analysis, News Media, Japan, Diet, Diet Members, Nagatacho, Political Leadership, Political Images, Culture, Symbols.
研究キーワード:     政治行動、政治的言語、コミュニケーション、レトリック、ディスコース・アナリシス、ニュース・メディア、日本、国会、国会議員、永田町、政治的リーダーシップ、政治的イメージ、文化、シンボル。

PAST & CURRENT MAJOR PUBLICATIONS

  1. Books/Monographs

(1) O. Feldman, Politics and the News Media in Japan (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1993, 220p.) (2nd and 3rd printings 1995).

    This book describes and analyzes political communication in Japan with a particular focus on the relationship between the news media and politicians. In this work I detail how the close connection between reporters and Diet members influences the coverage of politics in the media and how the news media and reporters function as information sources for Diet members. The book further discusses the importance of the national dailies in Japanese political life; reporters' work patterns and their formal and informal interaction with political news sources; the objectives reporters and politicians have vis-a-vis one another; and how Japanese cultural factors affect the role reporters play in politics. The book is based on data I have collected in the course of research on the nature and characteristics of political communication and the relationship between information sources and reporters in Japan. During the course of this study I met and interviewed more than 70 members of the Diet, Japan's Parliament, and about 50 reporters and editors from all the news media, political party officials, government bureaucrats and people from media research institutions. This volume fills a serious gap in the literature on the Japanese media and its role in the political system by focusing on the structure and process of news-gathering by Japanese reporters. It is the first work based on a survey of rank-and-file members of the Japanese National Diet; news people and editors of national and local newspapers, news agencies, and broadcast media; political party officials; and secretaries of Diet members.

(2) O. Feldman, The Japanese Political Personality: Analyzing the Motivations & Culture of Freshman Diet Members (London: Macmillan, 1999 & New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000, 182p. (in association with International Political Science Association’s Advances in Political Science: An International Series) Hardcover  / ISBN 0312229275

    This is a study of the Japanese political personality as embodied in the members of the Diet. The focus is on newly elected members of the lower house (House of Representatives) of the Diet. The study evaluates and analyzes the personal characteristics of these Diet members and identifies several common syndromes and qualities that set them apart from any other group. It discusses the Diet members' views regarding the socio-political environment in which they work, their political and politically relevant orientations, as well as their opinions, stereotypes, and thoughts on diverse topics concerning society and politics. The study also examines the extent to which such variables are related to other manifestations, such as past and present activities and the exposure of individual Diet members to socialization agents.
    The data for this book was gathered from 110 first-term Diet members newly elected to the lower house of the Diet. Survey instruments utilized a variety of scales to measure such variables as dogmatism, self-esteem, and self-complexity. The questionnaire was followed by direct interviews with 90 of the Diet members who had responded to it. As a control for evaluating the significance of the political sample's responses, data was also gathered from nonpolitical groups of 225 students and 763 randomly selected adults (requirements included a minimum age of 25 and eligibility to vote). Additional and supporting data for the study was gathered from Diet members' secretaries and aids, experienced Diet members who had been re-elected several times to the Diet, and reporters.
    Based on these data the book specifically explores three basic life domains which are integrated into the Japanese politicians' character. The first is the domain of ambition: the desire and motivation to invest oneself for the accomplishment of political office. The second is the domain of identity: the manner in which one views oneself, the sense of self-perception, and the level of self-esteem. The last is the domain of interaction with individuals and society: this category deals with basic attitudes toward relationships with other people and social issues--here the function that such attitudes serve in one's psychology is examined--including levels of authoritarianism and views about work, colleagues, opponents, and supporters. To the extent that they affect behavior, role perception, and performance in public, these domains occupy pivotal positions in the personality. Each life domain also serves as an indicator for those characteristics that distinguish Diet members from the general public.
    Related site: 
http://traveltoeasternasia.com/0312229275.html
    Review of this book: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?fb20000713a3.htm

(3) O. Feldman, Seijiteki “genjitsu” to retorikku no kenkyu: jidai to jokyo ni sokushita kotoba [A Study on Political "Reality" and Rhetoric: Words as they Reflect Era and Circumstances]. Research report on a study supported by a research-in-grant from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) [Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkokai] (Basic Research C (2), number: 11620082), June 2001, 77p. ( in Japanese).

    This report describes selected aspects of a research project I conducted during 1999-2001 under the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research awarded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The focus of the project was the forms and functions of language used in Japanese politics. Specifically, the project examined the characteristics and content of the political discourse of Diet members, high-echelon political leaders, government officials, and news reporters in contemporary Japan. It also explored links between culture (including political culture) and the language used by politicians, government officials, and journalists for disseminating information and interpreting political events. As part of this research project, I analyzed the content of news items (including political articles, editorials, feature stories, and editorial cartoons published in leading national newspapers, and in some weeklies and monthlies), and the content of politicians’ speeches (including prime ministers' inaugural policy speeches in the Diet). I also met and interviewed Diet members, their secretaries, and reporters and editors from national newspapers and broadcasters.
    In reporting the main findings of my research, I adopt a broad perspective on language and politics. I examined political communication through symbols, images, and metaphors. I took the symbolic-interactionist approach toward observing relationships between political behavior and language, i.e. I focused on what several political communication scholars consider to be the essence of political communication: a process involving interchange between political actors, taking place within a political context, and involving the exchange of symbols in order to achieve some political end. Each of this report's two chapters discusses a different aspect of my research. The first chapter describes the principal characteristics and nature of political discourse among politicians, leaders of political groups, and other decision-makers. Besides revealing the central aspects of their language and its background and functions, the chapter also details how the circumstances and intended visibility of an event affect the content of political discourse. The second chapter reports on the nature and the meaning of political metaphors used in Japan, with a special emphasis on the type of metaphors used to refer to political processes and institutions, and political roles. As a whole, the findings reported in this work are a product of preliminary analysis of the collected data. As indicated, I planed to further analyze the data I have gathered during the period of the study, to add data on other aspects of Japanese political discourse, and to integrate all these findings--from a broad, comparative perspective--into a single manuscript that will be published in the near future (this was realized in the following book).

(4) O. Feldman, Talking Politics in Japan Today (UK: Brighton, Sussex academic Press, Hardcover 2004; Paperback 2005)
    Hardcover/  ISBN 1845190378

    This book focuses on the rhetoric used by members of the political elite and the news media in Japan as the core of political dynamics in this country. Based on the notion that political society is formed by language, and that in a broad sense the essence of politics is talk, this book examines the multifarious aspects of political discourse in Japan. Discussion focuses on political discourse involving Diet members and political leaders – including the prime minister, the chief cabinet secretary, and leaders of political parties and party factions – as well as the discourse of the news media as it evolves and revolves around the Diet, the prime minister’s official residence, headquarters of the major political parties, and Diet members’ offices. The activities that take place in Nagatacho and how they are expressed and reflected in communication- related processes – including interaction between Diet members and media representatives, the language used by politicians, and the functions that rhetoric performs in the Japanese polity – are examined. The author also investigates how political rhetoric varies according to the circumstances and intended visibility of events; the structure and focus of political news; the language and methods information sources used to disseminate information and put their desired spin on events; and the nuances and tone of language used by Diet members and officials to shape the country’s political culture. The work addresses explicit and implicit meanings of slogans and gaffes; political cartoons in daily newspapers (examples included); the nature of political interviews on Japanese television; and the ways non-Japanese perceive Japan’s views of world events.
    Related site:     http://www.sussex-academic.co.uk/titles/politicsinternational%20relations/Feldman(Ofer).asp
    Book Content:  http://www.sussex-academic.co.uk/pdfs/feldman,ofer(contents).pdf
              Extract:   http://www.sussex-academic.co.uk/pdfs/feldman,ofer(extract).pdf

2. Edited books

(1). O. Feldman (ed.), Political Psychology in Japan: Behind the Nails Which Sometimes Stick Out (and get hammered down) (New York: Nova Science Publishers, 1999, 340p.)
Hardcover/ ISBN:1-56072-636-9

    Perhaps the most striking thing about Japan for Western students of political psychology is the surprising scarcity of accessible information. In particular, those who seek to compare various aspects of political behavior in their own country with corresponding aspects of a non-Western society such as Japan, find few Japan-related studies in American or European journals that specialize in psychology, social psychology, culture, politics, or communication. Although they may be hard to find, there are studies that endeavor to shed light on the relationships between psychology and political behavior in Japan. A large proportion of these studies use an empirical approach to examine political attitudes, the effects of culture-related variables on voting behavior and leader-followers interactions, and the extent to which psychological involvement in politics is related to exposure to personal information or to the political content of news media. These studies are based on survey data collected from certain segments of the public or from members of the political elite--government bureaucrats or politicians. Other studies are based on public opinion polls, news media’s content analysis or on analysis of governmental data regarding lifestyle and other social and economic aspects of the citizens. 
    Unfortunately, many studies of political behavior in Japan, including some that use interesting research methods or contain original ideas and theories, are not readily accessible to Western scholars because they are published in the Japanese language. Although many Japanese scholars have studied and trained in Western countries, they still prefer to publish their research findings in Japanese rather than some other language. One reason for this is probably that they have an enormous domestic market for their work, causing them to narrow their interest to the local market rather than addressing the larger academic community outside Japan. Another reason may be the existence of a wide variety of academic associations in Japan, each of which has its own annual meetings and periodicals. Not only are these periodicals more accessible to Japanese scholars, but generally their review processes are quicker and their editorial policies less strict than American or European journals, so they are the medium in which many researchers prefer to report their research projects and findings. For whatever reasons, Western researchers who do not read Japanese are for the most part unable to get information on political behavior and attitudes in Japan, and thus unable to compare it with political trends in their own countries.
    To the degree that universal theories of political psychology and behavior are desirable (and feasible), scholarly work done in Japan has an important role to play. It often indicates that Western models need to be reworked through further investigation, that terms need to be redefined and conceptual bases re-configured, or that different research methods need to be used in order to test the validity and reliability of universal hypotheses.
    This book aims to begin to fill the gaps in Western scholars' knowledge of Japan by organizing relevant data into a single, English-language volume. The book
describes and analyzes the major characteristics of political behavior and political attitudes in Japan, beginning with individual level characteristics and continuing through political leadership, decision-making and choice, public/mass behavior, attitudes toward foreigners and foreign countries, and facets of culture and national character. The chapters in the book explore issues such as political culture, political socialization and education, political consciousness and awareness, party support and identification, social movements and mass mobilization, voting behavior, authoritarianism, lifestyle, xenophobia, and self-other orientation in Japan. These chapters draw from a variety of approaches and are written by Japanese and foreign researchers from diverse disciplines including social psychology, political science, public policy, international relations, linguistics, and psychology. By examining agents such as family, the news media, affluence in society, education, gender, personality, and culture, the contributors have successfully applied knowledge from a variety of disciplines to political dynamics--resulting in a wide range of theoretical perspectives in the evaluation of Japanese social behavior. Contributors include Jun-ichi Kawata, Shinkichi Sugimori, Hiroshi Hirano, Yoshihiko Takenaka, Kazuhisa Kawakami, Steven Reed, Robert D. Eldridge, Shigeko N. Fukai, Yumiko Mikanagi, Rotem Kowner, Tetsu Kohno, and Peter Berton.
    Related sites http://www.nexusworld.com/detailed_search.asp?id=1-56072-636-9
                         http://www.bookchecker.com/1560726369

(2) O. Feldman & Christ'l De Landtsheer (eds.) Politically Speaking: A worldwide Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998, 212p.)
Hardcover/ ISBN: 0275961222

    This is a study of political language. As the title suggests, in this book we offer an overview of the characteristics, nature and content of language in politics. We also look at the various roles of language in the political domain. Our goal has been to bring together essays with essential information on specific issues of relevance to political language in both Western and non-Western societies. To reach that goal, we have given a special emphasis to new topics that have emerged relatively recently, and which have further stimulated interest in the study of political discourse in general, and the roles that the language of politicians, government officials and the news media play in contemporary politics in particular. The essays in this volume provide reviews of recent important research, include extensive lists of up-to-date references, and draw on the authors' own research, presenting original or updated findings. All of the pieces point to a wide diversity in directions of research, methods of examination--theoretical, analytical, descriptive, qualitative, quantitative, and empirical--and approaches to analyzing the functions language plays in the polity. From this emerges subtle links between culture, political culture and the language politicians and other elites, as well as the public, use in their symbolic interaction.
    Thus, this anthology aims to detail and analyze the recurrent theme of political language from different perspectives--political science, psychology, philosophy, sociology, economics, religion, public administration, mass communication, and linguistics. In this analysis, critical eyes pass over the discourse of press reports, political orations, election propaganda, ideological treatises, and political party programs to give an overview of the “art” of political language; an analysis of the rhetoric of American presidents, Arab leaders and French presidential candidates; reports on the  changes in the rhetoric of leaders in Russia; and discussions of the  political language in such non-Western countries as Japan, Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela. In doing so, this volume stakes out what we think are some of the important potential in research in political language. It is divided into three main parts: The Nature and Scope of Political Discourse; The Discourse of the Political Elite; Methods in the Study of Political Discourse.

(3) C. De Landtsheer & O. Feldman (eds.), Beyond Public Speech and Symbols: Explorations in the Rhetoric of Politicians and the Media (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000, 286p.)
Hardcover/ ISBN: 0275967328

    This volume is a companion to Politically Speaking: A Worldwide Examination of  Language Used in the Public Sphere (Feldman & De Landtsheer, Westport, Con,: Praeger,1998). The essays in this book thus address issues relevant to political discourse in a wide range of societies, with special emphasis on topics that have emerged relatively recently. Because they employ a variety of theoretical, conceptual and methodological approaches, the essays--individually and collectively--highlight the need for further research and will hopefully encourage others to follow up with additional methodological tests and theoretical revisions.
The papers in this volume examine the nature, characteristics, content and reception of three major areas of discourse: (1) The language of political figures--including the British prime minister, US presidents, Canadian federal party leaders, and a candidate in a Venezuelan presidential election; (2) Speech structures used in parliamentary bodies--in the Ukraine, Israel, Japan and the European Union--and (3) The language of news (and new) media--in the US, China, and Japan--including the use of editorial cartoons, symbols and meta-symbols to inform and to affect public opinion. The essays are based upon empirical materials gathered in the UK, USA, Canada, China, Israel, Japan, Ukraine, Venezuela and the European Union, so they allow comparison of the different structures and contents of speech used in a wide variety of societies from West to East.
Contributors include Peter Bull, Peter Suedfeld, Moya Ann Ball, Maritza Montero, Shoji Azuma, Lise van Oortmerssen, Mira Moshe, Sam Lehman-Wilzig, Sergiy Taran, Mei Zhang, Montague Kern, Marion Just, Ann Crigler, Iris (Hong) Xie, Tracey L. Mitchell, Nadya Terkildsen, and Frauke Schnell.

(4) O. Feldman & L. O. Valenty (eds.), Profiling Political Leaders: Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality & Behavior (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001, 293p.) Hardcover/ ISBN 0275970361

    The study of political leadership presents a challenge to researchers from both political science and psychology. Although studies are available in the general assessment of the effects of personality in political decision-making and processes, the present book distinguishes itself among others of this genre by offering analyses of political leaders from around the world and demonstrating the use of a variety of analytic methods to further understanding of the political personality and its function from an international, comparative perspective. The contributors to this volume were specifically asked to explain and evaluate current methods--and their application--available for the assessment and examination of relationships between personality, motivation, decision-making, leadership style, and behavior among political leaders and across divergent cultures.
    The collected research presented in the following chapters describe and analyze theoretical issues related to political leadership; examine available methods and the cross-cultural application of these methods in the analysis of political leadership (including thematic content analytic methods used in the measurement of motive imagery and integrative complexity); present techniques that may combine one or more of the extant methods or develop a novel approach to the assessment of the political personality; and/or evaluate psychodiagnostic and psychobiographical methods and their application in profiling the personalities of political leaders. Chapters utilize case studies that include those who are undoubtedly among the most powerful and significant leaders of the twentieth century--Mao Zedong of China; Nobusuke Kishi of Japan; Tony Blair of the UK; David Lange of New Zealand; Sayyed Mohammed Khatami of Iran; Yitzhak Shamir, Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel; Helmut Kohl of Germany; and Stalin, Yeltsin, Lebed, Zhirinovsky, and Putin of Russia.
    The present volume surveys state-of-the-art research on psychological profiling and the analysis of political leadership. It illustrates the role of cultural and political context, including historical circumstance, environmental factors, and socialization agents that affect and shape political leadership and performance in divergent cultures. Its approach is multi-disciplinary with contributors from the fields of political science, psychology, political psychology, social psychology, and history.

(5) L.O. Valenty & O. Feldman (eds.), Political Leadership for the New Century: Personality & Behavior Among American Leaders (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002,  271p.)
Hardcover/ ISBN 027597037X


    This is the second volume of a two-volume set, specifically designed to analyze and deal with the complexities of evaluating those political leaders who have become prominent within the United States. It includes case studies examining political figures including presidents John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush; Vice-President Spiro Agnew, and data for other prominent leaders including all elected presidents. The impetus for the creation of both volumes was the need for texts that described both theory and implementation in the analysis of political personality and behavior. These chapters taken together provide an overview of current methods used in understanding and predicting political behavior.
    Political leaders, by virtue of the tremendous responsibility that they both undertake and are given, have been of critical interest to analysts of politics and
political psychology. However, the attributes of their personalities and the interaction between personality and behavior are not readily accessible and so necessitate the use of techniques which seek to enhance understanding without the advantage of direct access to the political subject. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of these techniques generally employ the use of what is often described as “at-a-distance” methodology. Whether quantitative or qualitative, these approaches present difficulties for the researcher. Choice of material, determination of the method of analysis, and interpretation of results, all present theoretical, if not logistical hurdles that are overcome only with reliance upon the rigor of systematic analysis.
    It is the intent of this book to provide a unique framework, one that will facilitate an enhanced understanding of both political leadership and the methods used to analyze political leaders. To this end, relevant methodologies are described, specific application is provided, and, issues regarding the application of methods are discussed. Contributors include Fred I. Greenstein, Betty Glad, David G. Winter, Mark Schafer, Michael D. Young, Stephen G. Walker, M. Betsy Carroll, Aubrey Immelman, Steven J. Rubenzer, Thomas R. Faschingbauer, Deniz S. One, Jerel Rosati, Robert E. Gilbert, Scott W. Webster, and Stanley A. Renshon
    Related site:  http://info.greenwood.com/books/0275970/027597037x.html

3. Chapters in Edited Books

 (1). O. Feldman, "Cultural Nationalism and Beyond: Crosscultural Political Psychology in Japan" in S.A. Renshon & J. Duckitt (eds.), Political Psychology: Cultural and Crosscultural Foundation. London: Macmillan & New York: New York University Press, 2000, pp. 182-200.
   
    This chapter analyzes two approaches to the examination of Japanese social and political behavior within a cross-cultural context. The first--nihonjinron (theories of Japaneseness)--works with cultural nationalism, which argues that Japanese values, identity, and behavior patterns are unique and thus no social theory developed in the West can be applied to Japanese society. The second approach is characterized by the use of sample-surveys and field studies to compare Japanese social and political attitudes with those of Americans and Europeans. By using the same research methods utilized in Western societies, researchers assess the degree to which voting behavior, political leadership and attitudes are affected by psychological concepts such as personality and motivation and by media exposure. In spite of the traditional antagonism between students of these two approaches, the two in fact provide for a synthesis and interaction which serves to enrich each approach to the extent that both then provide important tools in formulating generalization about Japanese political culture and behavior. The chapter suggests that the attempt to construct a general theory in cross-cultural political psychology will require reference to the unique political culture and attitudes of non-Western industrialized societies.

(2).   O. Feldman & M.W. Watts, “Autoritat und Politische Autoritat in Japan: Kulturelle und Soziale Orientierungen in Einer Nicht-Westlichen Gesellschaft” [“Authority and Political Authority in Japan: Cultural and Social Orientations in Non-Western Society”] in S. Rippl, C. Seipel, & A. Kindervater (eds.), Autoritarismus: Kontroversen und Ansatze der Aktuellen Autoritarismusforschung  [Authoritarianism: Controversies and Approaches in Authoritarianism Research Today], Opladen, Germany: Leske & Budrich, 2000, pp. 147-171 (in German).

    The dominant perspective that Japanese society has unique attitudes toward authority that are indelibly influenced by cultural forms, is critiqued as a normative view that renders empirical and comparative analysis difficult if not futile. The chapter evaluates key concepts within this perspective, including vertical integration, amae/dependency, and the distinction between authority and power in Japan. We conclude that the unique elements of the Japanese culture of authority complicate the direct application of common Western concepts (and empirical measures) of authority. However, increasing diversity in Japanese society, particularly that associated with generational changes in political culture, have produced a range of problems that are familiar to many modern parliamentary democracies. This dynamic has created possibilities for comparative analysis that exceed those limits that had previously been accepted as conventional wisdom.

    Related site: http://www.uni-hildesheim.de/ ̄seipel/aut.htm

4. Journal Articles (selected items)

(1). O. Feldman, "Political Attitudes and the News Media in Japan: Effects of Exposure and Attention to the News Media on Political Involvement and Disapprobation," The Howard Journal of Communications, [USA] 1995, 6 (3), pp. 206-225.
 
    The theoretical framework of this study is based on research done by political scientists and communication researchers in Western societies. As indicated by social researches, for almost all social and public affairs issues, the news media are the most important source of information. In the USA, England, and Israel, for example, political scientists and communication researchers have indicated in recent years the significance of the news media as a channel through which citizens access diverse information and interpretation of political events, of decision making processes, and of the function and conduct of political institutions and leaders. The news media not only directly provide information but also affect behavior and attitudes toward the political elite, serve to reinforce existing attitudes toward social and political issues, and make salient certain issues, often affecting the agenda of the public and decision-makers.
Based on data gathered from more than 3000 adults (voters) from all parts of Japan, this study focuses on the extent to which contact with the news media affects political attitudes. The study analyses three media consumption variables: exposure to print and broadcast media in general, attention to their political coverage and political content use, and their relationship with political involvement and disapprobation variables. The results show that there is a strong association within--and between--mass media variables; that contact with both newspapers and television is significantly related to political attitude variables; and that there is great similarity in the way both news media channels affect individuals in Japan.

(2). M.W. Watts & O. Feldman “Are Natives a Different Kind of Democrats? Democratic Values and ‘Outsiders’ in Japan,” Political Psychology, [USA], 2001, 22, pp. 639-662, 2001.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3792481?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

   This paper combines three elements: (1) A discussion of democratic values and the perception of outsiders in Japan, (2) the development of measures that seem particularly appropriate in democratic systems like Japan where control of deviance is of high priority, and (3) an empirical exploration of the relationship between these democratic values and antipathy toward outsiders. These findings are discussed in the context of a theory of the symbolic construction of community, differentiating between the legal community (community of formal citizenship) and the symbolic community. The paper argues that the choice between the two conceptions of democracy--between universalistic tolerance and particularistic defensiveness--is dependent on three elements: the conception of democratic values, perception of outsider threat, and the inclusive-exclusive nature of the symbolic construction of community. Here we follow a suggestion arising from the study of European ethnocentrism that one may be a nativist and a democrat at the same time. Using a sample of roughly 1000 Japanese university students, the paper finds that one may indeed be a nativist and a democrat, but that this profile yields a democrat of a different sort: more fearful and distrusting of strangers and foreigners, more likely to have higher contact anxiety and to desire greater social distance, more likely to perceive "other" as threatening and intrusive, and more likely to wish for policies that limit the outsider's access to jobs and other social advantages. We argue that this form of "defensive democracy" is compatible with nativism and ethnocentrism, and that it provides for latent legitimation of outsider-discrimination when the political environment is conducive to targeting foreign

(3) Peter Bull & Ofer Feldman, Invitations to Affiliative Audience Responses in Japanese Political Speeches, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, XX(X), pp. 1 –19, 2011.
      Bull & Feldman 2011

(4) Ofer Feldman & Peter Bull, Understanding Audience Affiliation in Response to Political Speeches in Japan, Language and Dialogue, 2:3, pp. 375-397, 2012.
      Feldman & Bull 2012

(5) Culture or Communicative Conflict? The Analysis of Equivocation in Broadcast Japanese Political Interviews, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 34(1), pp. 65–89, 2015.
      Feldman, Kinoshita, & Bull 2015


 


INDEX